Collaborative regulation for digital transformation in Mexico 2022

Digital transformation has emerged onto the policy agenda of a growing number of countries as a way to drive social development and economic prosperity. Digitalization, as a cross-cutting phenomenon, has a broad social and economic impact. It affects all sectors of an economy – from agriculture to industry and trade, from household consumption to …

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Switching on Smart Rwanda: Digital inclusion, collaboration and a G5 mindset 2021

According to the ICT Regulatory Tracker, Rwanda is a fourth-generation (G4) regulator. As a country that has put ICTs at the centre of its development since 2000, Rwanda has duly earned its recent entry into the small but growing club of African countries to be rated at the G4 level. G4 is characterized by integrated regulation, led by economic and social policy goals. G5, which is well within Rwanda’s grasp, has the important additional aspect of deep and meaningful collaboration as a means of achieving development-oriented digitalization and digital transformation.

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Tanzania – A solid base for moving to G5 regulation 2021

The ability to successfully collaborate, is one of the key building blocks of a digital economy, and a key marker of a fifth generation (G5) regulator. In an information and communication technology (ICT) sector known for change, G5 regulation represents yet another shift – not of technology, but of paradigm – for governments and regulators globally. G5 regulation forces the reconsideration of existing institutional frameworks and the harmonisation of policy priorities and regulatory rules in recognition of the interplay between digital infrastructure, services and content across industries and national borders.

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The benchmark of fifth generation collaborative regulation 2021

The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has been advocating in the past years the need to implement a new approach to ICT regulation, labelled fifth generation collaborative regulation. The underlying premise of such an approach is the need for countries to migrate to a regulatory and policy framework based on the collaboration among multiple sectors and cross-sector regulators within a scope that expands beyond the ICT space into that of the digital economy. In this context, as part of its Global ICT Regulatory Outlook, the ITU launched a pilot version of The Benchmark of Fifth Generation Collaborative Regulation (G5 Benchmark) in 2020, with the objective of tracking the evolution of regulatory frameworks and helping countries establish roadmaps towards the new paradigm. The pilot edition of the G5 Benchmark covered more than 80 countries and has proven, so far, to be a powerful and straightforward tool for policymakers and regulators that sets new goals for regulatory excellence. More importantly, the Benchmark has become a reference in topics such as collaboration amongst regulators, and a design tool of policy and legal instruments seeking to maximize digital transformation across all sectors of the economy. Table of contents 1. INTRODUCTION 2. RESEARCH ON REGULATORY AND POLICY INDICES IN ICT AND THE DIGITAL ECONOMY Indices measuring trade barriers in telecommunications services Indices measuring the development of telecommunications regulatory and policy frameworks 2.3. Indices measuring the development of regulatory and policy frameworks applied to the digital economy 2.4. Conclusion Index of telecommunications Index of telecommunications 3. THE CURRENT INDUSTRY CONTEXT REQUIRES A NEW REGULATORY AND POLICY METRIC 3.1. The transition to a digital economy 3.2. The need of a digital policy agenda 3.3. The need for measuring cross-sector collaboration 4. THE G5 BENCHMARK 4.1. Benchmark design 4.2. Benchmark construction methodology G5 Benchmark Digital Economy Policy Agenda Policy Design Development Digital 4.3. Test of benchmark robustness 4.3.1. Benchmark framework Data availability and missing values Normalization and weighting Statistical coherence 4.3.5. Impact of modelling assumptions 4.3.6. Conclusion 5. BENCHMARK RESULTS AND INTERPRETATION 5.1. A worldwide perspective Graphic 6. G5 Benchmark versus Digital Economy Development Index 5.2. A view from the regions Digital Policy Design Digital G5 Economy Regulatory Development Policy Agenda G5 Benchmark 5.2.1. Africa Digital Policy Design Digital Economy Development Regulatory Policy Agenda G5 Benchmark Digital Policy Design Digital Economy Development Regulatory Policy Agenda 5.2.2. Americas G5 Benchmark Digital Policy Design Digital Economy Development Regulatory Policy Agenda G5 Benchmark Arab States Digital Policy Design Digital Economy Development Regulatory Policy Agenda G5 Benchmark 5.2.4. Asia Pacific Digital Policy Design Digital Economy Development Regulatory Policy Agenda G5 Benchmark Digital Policy Design Digital Economy Development Regulatory Policy Agenda 5.2.5. Commonwealth of Independent Nations G5 Benchmark Europe G5 Benchmark Digital Policy Design Digital Economy Development Regulatory Policy Agenda Digital Digital Economy Policy Design Development Regulatory Policy Agenda BIBLIOGRAPHY Annex A: List of members of Review Board Annex B: Detailed Methodology of the G5 Benchmark Annex C. List of countries in the G5 Benchmark 2020

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Collaborative regulation case study Moldova 2021

With its ups and downs, the Republic of Moldova has experienced an expansion of the economy by an average of 4.6 per cent annually over the past 20 years.1 The global pandemic, however, has left a significant mark – the gross domestic product (GDP) decreased by 7.0 per cent in 2020 and affected most sectors of the economy. According to a study by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the economic losses of the COVID-19 pandemic during 2020 affected some countries more than others. Countries with better broadband infrastructure and with broad use of ICTs among the population were able to mitigate part of the negative economic impact, allowing households, enterprises, and governments to continue their daily engagements during that time. Although Moldova’s economy is forecasted to rebound in 2021 with an expected 3.8 per cent growth in GDP, traces of the pandemic will remain well into the future. It is important, therefore, to consider the main lessons learnt from the pandemic. One clear lesson has emerged: inclusive connectivity is not an option, it is a necessity. The digital economy has become an enabler for traditional economic sectors in the Republic of Moldova, creating new markets and development opportunities. One less negative legacy of COVID-19 is the opportunity it has highlighted to drive forward with digital transformation.

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The impact of policies, regulation, and institutions on ICT sector performance 2021

This study shows that ICT regulation has had a measurable impact on the growth of global ICT markets over the past decade. The analysis uses econometric modelling to pinpoint the impact of the regulatory and institutional frameworks on the performance of the ICT sector and its contribution to national economies. The modelling has allowed to capture fresh insights backed by authoritative data on the evolution of ICT regulation since 2007, the ICT Regulatory Tracker, and a global dataset on ICT markets economics. The new analysis points to regulatory features that can have a multiplier effect on ICT markets and consumer benefits. For the mobile sector, open and collaborative regulatory policies appear to have a strong positive impact on investment. In turn, more investment triggers coverage gains and lower consumer prices, boosts ICT adoption and generates growth in national economies around two years after policy adoption.

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Collaborative regulation case study Romania 2021

After recovering from the worldwide financial crisis of 2008, Romania demonstrated stable economic growth for almost a decade it experienced the expansion of its economy by an average of 3.9 per cent annually during the period from 2011 to 2019.1 The global pandemic of 2020, however, pushed the country into recession the Romanian economy has contracted by 3.9 per cent. The strength of its recovery will depend on many factors. According to a study by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), countries with better broadband infrastructure and with broad use of ICTs among the population were able to mitigate part of the negative economic impact of COVID-19, allowing households, enterprises, and governments to continue their daily engagements during that time; these countries are also better equipped for the recovery phase.2 In this regard, Romania is in an advantageous position post-COVID-19, having extensive high-quality digital infrastructure including one of the highest penetration rates for ultra-fast broadband in the European Union (EU). Additionally, aspirations for fast recovery are linked to Romania s Recovery and Resilience Plan and significant financial support coming from EU funds.3 These components accessibility and uptake of high-quality infrastructure, and availability of financial resources not only create an opportunity for the country to recover quickly from the pandemic crisis4 and to improve its standing in the EU Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI),5 but, importantly, accelerate the growth of its digital economy. According to estimates, the digital economy in Romania could grow to represent 20 per cent by 2025, becoming a driving force and cross-cutting pillar for socio- economic development.6 However, realizing this potential will require the joint efforts of a range of stakeholders: policy-makers and regulators will need to provide timely incentives and create a favourable eco-system for the adoption of digital technologies in both public and private sectors; the private sector must adopt digital tools to boost its productivity and reach of markets; and individuals will need to continuously upskill to take full advantage of the new digital environment. Table of contents Collaborative Regulation Case Study: Unlocking Romania’s Potential for Digital Transformation and G5 Regulation 1. Introduction 2. Broadband market developments 3. Overview of existing strategies and policies 4. Institutional framework for ICT regulation 5. Collaboration with the private sector 6. G5 regulation and digital transformation: Six key steps to unlock Romania’s potential Conclusions

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The economic contribution of broadband, digitization and ICT regulation: Econometric modelling for the ITU Europe region 2020

This study focuses on the impact of broadband, digital transformation and policy and regulatory frameworks on the growth of markets for digital services in the Europe region. It provides evidence of the importance of regulatory and institutional variables in driving digital growth and further illustrates how broadband technologies combined with effective ICT regulation can positively impact the growth of national economies and prosperity. The outcomes of this regional study may serve as key reference material to illustrate the impact of fixed and mobile broadband on the economy, where the regions stand in terms of digitization and the impact of digitization on GDP. The results from this study could assist European countries in conceptualizing the process of launching evidence-based digital transformation strategies.

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Global ICT Regulatory Outlook 2020 2020

The Global ICT Regulatory Outlook 2020 benchmarks regulatory progress across no fewer than 193 countries worldwide. In three years, the report has established itself as the go-to reference for regulators and policy-makers seeking to shape meaningful, regulatory change that will benefit all. There is much to navigate: the landscape is complex and fast moving. As mobile phones host ever more online services, regulators find themselves grappling with an ever-growing array of challenges including digital identity, data protection, blockchain and Artificial Intelligence (AI). There remains, too, the key challenge of achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by the deadline of 2030, now just a decade away. As always, ITU stands ready to support regulators and policy-makers around the world in meeting such challenges. Table of contents Global ICT Regulatory Outlook 2020 Acknowledgements Foreword Introduction Third edition of ITU’s Global ICT Regulatory Outlook Chapter 1: The need for collaboration and metrics – and a new benchmark Collaborative regulation – key to unlocking digital transformation Industry and regulators charting a common future Why do we need collaborative regulation? Generations of regulation: analysis tools and a roadmap for action About the Benchmark of Fifth Generation Collaborative Regulation (G5 Benchmark) The Benchmark of Fifth Generation Collaborative Regulation (G5 Benchmark) – fast-track to collaborative regulation The Benchmark is needed – especially now Looking ‘under the bonnet’ of the Benchmark Benchmark for collaborative regulation – spotlighting the shifts in regulatory frameworks G5 countries – movers, shakers… and some surprises Breaking it down track by track – more surprising insights Opportunity awaits regulators who embrace collaboration Chapter 2: Collaborative regulation: unstoppable, not yet universal Global trends: G4 is now the industry standard but vanguard countries moving onto G5 The view from the regions: Africa The view from the regions: Americas The view from the regions: Arab States The view from the regions: Asia-Pacific The view from the regions: CIS The view from the regions: Europe Chapter 3: Good regulation broadens access and ignites markets G5 and G4 regulation help advance digital services G4 and G5 – powerful engines for mobile broadband growth Fixed broadband – G4 countries losing momentum as G5 countries surge ahead Golden rules that help unlock the power of broadband Seven golden rules that accelerate take-up of fixed broadband Chapter 4: Audit of ITU ICT Regulatory Tracker: conceptually sound, statistically coherent and robust Abstract Introduction Conceptual and statistical coherence Impact of modelling assumptions on the ICT Regulatory Tracker Major shifts in the ICT Regulatory Tracker scores over the period 2007-2018 Analysis of the distribution of regional ICT Regulatory Tracker scores in 2018 Conclusions Annexes to Chapter 4 Annex I. Correlations between indicators Annex II. Nominal ranks with 90% confidence intervals Annex III. Values of the normalised pillars by country in 2018 Appendix 1: Note on methodology, ICT Regulatory Tracker Appendix 2: Note on methodology, G5 Benchmark composition and scoring rationale Appendix 3: List of countries and economies in the ICT Regulatory Tracker Appendix 4: List of countries in the G5 Benchmark 2019

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How broadband, digitization and ICT regulation impact the global economy. Global econometric modelling 2020

As the global economy reels from the shock of COVID-19, decisions taken now that impact economic recovery and growth will be of the utmost importance for the decade ahead. For those of us in the global ICT community and for those in other industries charged with making strategic infrastructure decisions in the years ahead government policy-makers, regulators, influencers, operators and service providers this expert report is especially valuable at this time. Its findings are clear and its recommendations are specific, concrete and practical. The analysis looks at how fixed and mobile broadband as well as digital transformation impact the economy, globally and at regional levels. It also reports on how our institutions and our regulatory approach affect the development of the global digital ecosystem. It is based on the ITU global study on the economic contribution of broadband, digitization and ICT regulation (2018), and related regional econometric modelling studies each of which adds a rich and detailed regional dimension. The data set that lies at the heart of this work is world class global, up-to-date and robust. Table of contents How broadband, digitization and ICT regulation impact the global economy Global econometric modelling Foreword List of tables and figures Executive summary: How broadband and digitization impact the global economy 1 Fixed broadband and its impact on the economy 1.1 Impact of fixed broadband at global and regional levels 1.2 What the modelling showed globally and by region 2. Mobile broadband and its impact on the economy 2.1 Impact of mobile broadband at global and regional levels 2.2 What the modelling showed globally and by region 2.3 Fixed vs. mobile broadband – economic impact by level of development 3 The economic impact of digitization 3.1 An index to measure the development of digital ecosystems: 8 pillars, 64 indicators 3.2 Digitization correlates with economic development 3.3 Digitization – on par with mobile broadband in boosting economies 4 Policy and regulation drive development of digitization Annex A: Review of the related research literature Annex B: Countries analysed for economic impact of fixed and mobile broadband Annex C: Data sources for models testing the economic impact of fixed and mobile broadband Annex D: Indicators included in the Digital Ecosystem Development Index and data sources Annex E: Econometric methodology Acronyms Bibliography

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