How broadband, digitization and ICT regulation impact the global economy. Global econometric modelling 2020

As the global economy reels from the shock of COVID-19, decisions taken now that impact economic recovery and growth will be of the utmost importance for the decade ahead. For those of us in the global ICT community and for those in other industries charged with making strategic infrastructure decisions in the years ahead government policy-makers, regulators, influencers, operators and service providers this expert report is especially valuable at this time. Its findings are clear and its recommendations are specific, concrete and practical. The analysis looks at how fixed and mobile broadband as well as digital transformation impact the economy, globally and at regional levels. It also reports on how our institutions and our regulatory approach affect the development of the global digital ecosystem. It is based on the ITU global study on the economic contribution of broadband, digitization and ICT regulation (2018), and related regional econometric modelling studies each of which adds a rich and detailed regional dimension. The data set that lies at the heart of this work is world class global, up-to-date and robust. Table of contents How broadband, digitization and ICT regulation impact the global economy Global econometric modelling Foreword List of tables and figures Executive summary: How broadband and digitization impact the global economy 1 Fixed broadband and its impact on the economy 1.1 Impact of fixed broadband at global and regional levels 1.2 What the modelling showed globally and by region 2. Mobile broadband and its impact on the economy 2.1 Impact of mobile broadband at global and regional levels 2.2 What the modelling showed globally and by region 2.3 Fixed vs. mobile broadband – economic impact by level of development 3 The economic impact of digitization 3.1 An index to measure the development of digital ecosystems: 8 pillars, 64 indicators 3.2 Digitization correlates with economic development 3.3 Digitization – on par with mobile broadband in boosting economies 4 Policy and regulation drive development of digitization Annex A: Review of the related research literature Annex B: Countries analysed for economic impact of fixed and mobile broadband Annex C: Data sources for models testing the economic impact of fixed and mobile broadband Annex D: Indicators included in the Digital Ecosystem Development Index and data sources Annex E: Econometric methodology Acronyms Bibliography

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Digital Regulation Handbook 2020

Today’s digital technologies are transforming almost every sector of the economy by presenting new business models, introducing innovative products and services – and, ultimately, changing the way countries around the world harness socioeconomic development. Digital technologies, and the benefits that they bring, can connect citizens to services and opportunities, and help them build a better future. However, for markets to function effectively, they must be accompanied by an enabling policy and regulatory environment. Table of contents Foreword List of tables and figures Introduction Acknowledgements / About the authors Chapter 1. Regulatory governance and independence 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Policy and implementation Evolution of regulation Assessing the need to modernize and streamline 1.3 Role and institutional design of regulator Institutional structure of regulator Traditional areas of responsibilities Shifting mandate/roles of regulators and policy-makers in the digital era Decision-making and rule-making in a multistakeholder environment 1.4 Regulatory collaboration Formalized and informal collaboration occurring across governments 1.5 Building frameworks for digital regulation Licensing frameworks for networks, services, and applications Innovative approaches to sector regulation 1.6 Key findings Development of national digital strategies and roadmaps Institutional structure and role of regulator Building frameworks for digital regulation References_7 Chapter 2. Competition and economics 2.1 Introduction: Regulatory transformation in the digital economy 2.2 Regulation in the digital era Historical approach_7 Recent developments_7 Key findings_7 2.3 The regulation of markets Historical approach_6 Recent developments_6 Key findings_6 2.4 Interconnection of networks Historical approach_5 Recent developments_5 Key findings_5 2.5 Infrastructure sharing Historical approach_4 Recent developments_4 Key findings_4 2.6 Price regulation Historical approach_3 Recent developments_3 Key findings_3 2.7 Dispute resolution Historical approach_2 Recent developments_2 Key findings_2 2.8 Licensing and authorization Historical approach_1 Recent developments_1 Key findings_1 2.9 Mergers and acquisitions Historical approach_0 Recent developments_0 Key findings_0 2.10 Taxation Historical approach Recent developments Key findings References_6 Chapter 3. Access for All 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Challenges to achieving universal access to broadband and digital services 3.3 Policies to promote universal access to broadband and digital services UA funding and financing policies: tackling accessibility challenges Policies to make broadband and digital services affordable Policies to promote inclusion 3.4 Monitoring and evaluation of impact of universal access policies 3.5 Key findings References_5 Chapter 4. Consumer affairs 4.1 Introduction to digital consumer rights Why care about consumers? Consumer rights and responsibilities in the digital world General and special consumer protection law Average consumers and vulnerable consumers The shift to online data 4.2 Consumer support framework Roles in protection and empowerment of digital consumers Consume-provider relationships Roles of ICT regulators Relevant international bodies 4.3 Specific consumer issues Price and quality of service Contracts and prepayment Billing and payment procedures Customer service, complaints, and redress Helping consumers navigate the digital economy Provision for consumers with disabilities Smart consumer devices Trust requires trustworthiness Online safety for children Online safety for adults Digital identity and automated decision-making 4.4 Key findings Introduction to digital consumer rights Consumer support framework Specific consumer issues References_4 Chapter 5. Data protection and trust 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Data protection regimes 5.3 Regulatory authorities 5.4 Technologies and services 5.5 Transfers and trade implications 5.6 Communications privacy 5.7 Data protection and information security References_3 Chapter 6. Spectrum management 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Part 1. Guidance on the regulatory framework for national spectrum management The international context International principles governing spectrum use Principles of national spectrum use Spectrum utilization for broadcasting and for telecommunications purposes in the private commercial and industrial sector Prevention and elimination of interference Rights and obligations of the authorized users Transparency in national spectrum management The linkage between international and national regulations Monitoring the spectrum Best practices for national spectrum management 6.3 Part 2. Key applications and regulatory considerations driving the future use of spectrum Introduction_0 Key trends in spectrum management for emerging technologies Technology innovations driving new spectrum demand Spectrum management and standards for emerging technologies National spectrum licensing New business models and spectrum usage innovations 6.4 Key findings References_2 Chapter 7. Regulatory responses to evolving technologies 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Evolving technologies Cloud computing Internet of Things Big data Blockchain Artificial intelligence Smart capabilities and data protection Data protection as the common denominator 7.3 The evolving Internet value chain 7.4 Evolving business models in the ICT sector 7.5 Summary References_1 Chapter 8. Technical regulation 8.1 Part 1. Quality of service Introduction Selecting parameters Defining measurements Setting targets Making measurements Auditing measurements Publishing measurements Stimulating improvements Reviewing achievements 8.2 Part 2. Numbering, naming, addressing, and identification (NNAI) Why do numbering, naming, and addressing matter? What are NNAI resources? NNAI management Global NNAI resources_0 The digital age emerges Impact of new technologies What instruments can the regulator use? New uses bring new Issues Global NNAI resources Future challenges for NNAI References_0 Chapter 9. Emergency communications 9.1 Introduction Why do emergency telecom/ICTs matter? Which are the different types of hazards? What should the regulator do? What is the disaster management process? 9.2 Mitigation phase 9.3 Preparedness phase 9.4 Response phase 9.5 Recovery phase References

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Economic impact of COVID-19 on digital infrastructure Report of an Economic Experts Roundtable organized by ITU 2020

Around the world, COVID-19 has upended lives and economies. Global analysts predict that the world may be facing its deepest recession since the end of World War II. At the same time, the pandemic has highlighted the crucial role of digital connectivity in keeping our societies functioning, as online everything quickly became our new way of life. Despite the surge in digital demand, however, important parts of the digital economy may not have escaped the economic fall-out from the crisis. If the financial difficulties faced by some market players constrain much-needed investment in digital infrastructure, the societal and economic consequences could be long, and far-reaching. Table of contents Economic impact of COVID-19 on digital infrastructure Acknowledgements Foreword List of tables and figures Executive summary Introduction 1. The impact of COVID-19 on digital infrastructure 1.1. Impact on telecommunication networks 1.2. The impact on the digital economy 2. Does digital infrastructure increase social and economic resilience? 2.1. State of research regarding the contribution of digital infrastructure to resilience in the face of pandemics 2.2. Limits to the capacity of digital infrastructure to increase resilience in the face of pandemics 3. Industry implications 3.1. The role of governments 3.2. A need to re-examine capital investment of telecommunication operators 3.3. An acceleration of the digitization of production

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Global ICT Regulatory Outlook 2020 2020

The Global ICT Regulatory Outlook 2020 benchmarks regulatory progress across no fewer than 193 countries worldwide. In three years, the report has established itself as the go-to reference for regulators and policy-makers seeking to shape meaningful, regulatory change that will benefit all. There is much to navigate: the landscape is complex and fast moving. As mobile phones host ever more online services, regulators find themselves grappling with an ever-growing array of challenges including digital identity, data protection, blockchain and Artificial Intelligence (AI). There remains, too, the key challenge of achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by the deadline of 2030, now just a decade away. As always, ITU stands ready to support regulators and policy-makers around the world in meeting such challenges. Table of contents Global ICT Regulatory Outlook 2020 Acknowledgements Foreword Introduction Third edition of ITU’s Global ICT Regulatory Outlook Chapter 1: The need for collaboration and metrics – and a new benchmark Collaborative regulation – key to unlocking digital transformation Industry and regulators charting a common future Why do we need collaborative regulation? Generations of regulation: analysis tools and a roadmap for action About the Benchmark of Fifth Generation Collaborative Regulation (G5 Benchmark) The Benchmark of Fifth Generation Collaborative Regulation (G5 Benchmark) – fast-track to collaborative regulation The Benchmark is needed – especially now Looking ‘under the bonnet’ of the Benchmark Benchmark for collaborative regulation – spotlighting the shifts in regulatory frameworks G5 countries – movers, shakers… and some surprises Breaking it down track by track – more surprising insights Opportunity awaits regulators who embrace collaboration Chapter 2: Collaborative regulation: unstoppable, not yet universal Global trends: G4 is now the industry standard but vanguard countries moving onto G5 The view from the regions: Africa The view from the regions: Americas The view from the regions: Arab States The view from the regions: Asia-Pacific The view from the regions: CIS The view from the regions: Europe Chapter 3: Good regulation broadens access and ignites markets G5 and G4 regulation help advance digital services G4 and G5 – powerful engines for mobile broadband growth Fixed broadband – G4 countries losing momentum as G5 countries surge ahead Golden rules that help unlock the power of broadband Seven golden rules that accelerate take-up of fixed broadband Chapter 4: Audit of ITU ICT Regulatory Tracker: conceptually sound, statistically coherent and robust Abstract Introduction Conceptual and statistical coherence Impact of modelling assumptions on the ICT Regulatory Tracker Major shifts in the ICT Regulatory Tracker scores over the period 2007-2018 Analysis of the distribution of regional ICT Regulatory Tracker scores in 2018 Conclusions Annexes to Chapter 4 Annex I. Correlations between indicators Annex II. Nominal ranks with 90% confidence intervals Annex III. Values of the normalised pillars by country in 2018 Appendix 1: Note on methodology, ICT Regulatory Tracker Appendix 2: Note on methodology, G5 Benchmark composition and scoring rationale Appendix 3: List of countries and economies in the ICT Regulatory Tracker Appendix 4: List of countries in the G5 Benchmark 2019

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Economic contribution of broadband, digitization and ICT regulation: Econometric modelling for Africa 2019

The transformative power of digital technologies and connectivity is empowering people, creating an environment that nurtures innovation, and is triggering positive change in business processes and in the global economy. The recent ITU study on the economic contribution of broadband, digitization and ICT regulation pro- vided a global econometric analysis of robust and reliable data resources to measure the impact of fixed and mobile broadband and digital transformation on the economy as a whole. It also analysed the impact of institutional and regulatory variables to the development of the digital ecosystem. Based on the data and analysis to measure the impact of digitization as a whole, a further need was identified to conduct studies that delved deeper into these effects, focusing on specific regions of the world. By applying the same methodologies and econometric models used for assessing global effects, this report focuses on the impact of broadband, digital transformation and policy and reg- ulatory frameworks on the growth of markets for digital services in Africa. It also provides evidence of the importance of regulatory and institutional variables in driving digital growth, illustrating that broadband technologies and effective ICT regulation can have positive impacts on the development of national economies and prosperity. Table of contents Economic contribution of broadband, digitization and ICT regulation: Econometric modelling for Africa Acknowledgements Foreword 1 Introduction 2 The effects identified on a global scale 3 The economic contribution of broadband and digitization and the impact of policy on digitization in Africa 3.1 Review of the research literature in Africa 3.2 Hypotheses 3.3 Economic impact of fixed broadband in Africa 3.3.1 Data 3.3.2 Model results and discussion 3.4 Economic impact of mobile broadband in Africa 3.4.1 Data 3.4.2 Model results and discussion 3.5 Economic impact of digitization in the Africa region 3.5.1 Data 3.5.2 Model results and discussion 3.6 Impact of policy and regulatory framework on digitization in Africa 3.6.1 Data 3.6.2 Model results and discussion 4 Conclusion Annex A: List of data sources for models testing the economic impact of fixed and mobile broadband Annex B: Indicators included in Digital Ecosystem Development Index and data sources Bibliography

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The economic contribution of broadband, digitization and ICT regulation: Econometric modelling for the Americas 2019

The transformative power of digital technologies and connectivity is empowering people, creating an environment that nurtures innovation, and is triggering positive change in business processes and in the global economy. The recent ITU study on the economic contribution of broadband, digitization and ICT regulation pro- vided a global econometric analysis of robust and reliable data resources to measure the impact of fixed and mobile broadband and digital transformation on the economy as a whole. It also analysed the impact of institutional and regulatory variables to the development of the digital ecosystem. Based on the data and analysis to measure the impact of digitization as a whole, a further need was identified to conduct studies that delved deeper into these effects, focusing on specific regions of the world. By applying the same methodologies and econometric models used for assessing global effects, this study focuses on the impact of broadband, digital transformation and policy and regulatory frameworks on the growth of markets for digital services in the Americas region. Table of contents The economic contribution of broadband, digitization and ICT regulation: Econometric modelling for the Americas Foreword Table of Contents 1 Introduction 2 The effects identified on a global scale 3 The economic contribution of broadband and digitization and the impact of policy on digitization in the Americas region 3.1. Review of the research literature 3.1.1. Economic impact of broadband: United States of America 3.1.2. Economic impact of broadband and digitization in Latin America and the Caribbean 3.2. Hypotheses 3.3. Economic impact of fixed broadband in the Americas region 3.3.1. Data 3.3.2. Model results and discussion 3.4. Economic impact of mobile broadband in the Americas region 3.4.1. Data 3.4.2. Model results and discussion 3.5. Economic impact of digitization in the Americas region 3.5.1. Data 3.5.2. Model results and discussion 3.6. Impact of policy and regulatory framework on digitization in the Americas region 3.6.1. Data 3.6.2. Models results and discussion 4 Conclusion Annex A: List of data sources for models testing the economic impact of fixed and mobile broadband Annex B: Indicators included in CAF Digital Ecosystem Development Index and data sources Bibliography

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The economic contribution of broadband, digitization and ICT regulation Econometric modelling for the Asia-Pacific region 2019

The transformative power of digital technologies and connectivity is empowering people, creating an environment that nurtures innovation, and is triggering positive change in business processes and in the global economy. The ITU study on the economic contribution of broadband, digitization and ICT regulation provided a global econometric analysis of robust and reliable data resources to measure the impact of fixed and mobile broadband and digital transformation on the economy as a whole. It also analysed the impact of institutional and regulatory variables to the development of the digital ecosystem. Based on the data and analysis to measure the impact of digitization as a whole, a further need was identified to conduct studies that delved deeper into these effects, focusing on specific regions of the world. By applying the same methodologies and econometric models used for assessing global effects, this study focuses on the impact of broadband, digital transformation and policy and regulatory frameworks on the growth of markets for digital services in the Asia-Pacific region. It also provides evidence of the importance of regulatory and institutional variables in driving digital growth, illustrating that broadband technologies and effective ICT regulation can have positive impacts on the development of national economies and prosperity. Table of contents The economic contribution of broadband, digitization and ICT regulation Econometric modelling for the Asia-Pacific region Acknowledgements Authors Foreword 1 Introduction 2 The effects identified on a global scale 2.1 Economic impact of fixed broadband 2.2 Economic impact of mobile broadband 2.3 Economic impact of digitization 2.4 Impact of policy and regulatory framework on digitization development 3 The economic contribution of broadband and digitization and the impact of policy on digitization in the Asia-Pacific region 3.1 Review of the research literature 3.2 Hypotheses 3.3 Economic impact of fixed broadband in the Asia-Pacific region 3.4 Economic impact of mobile broadband in the Asia-Pacific region 3.5 Economic impact of digitization in the Asia-Pacific region 3.6 Impact of policy and regulatory framework on digitization in the Asia-Pacific region 4 Conclusion Annex A: List of data sources for models testing the economic impact of fixed and mobile broadband Annex B: Indicators in the Digital Ecosystem Development Index and data sources Bibliography

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Global ICT Regulatory Outlook Summary 2019

This edition of the Global ICT Regulatory Outlook builds on its predecessor first edition. New this year is unique evidence from around the world charting the evolution of policy and regulation in ICTs and, by extension, in the digital economy. This is an exciting time for regulators and what they need more than ever, is detailed evidence to support their decision making, enabling them to lead the way in digital transformation with confidence. This report is based on inputs from 190 countries and offers an objective/neutral perspective on the latest trends driving ICT policy and regulation. Regulatory topics are explored through factual graphic analysis and complemented by country experiences. This powerful combination enables us to decipher complex, multi faceted issues and make sense of the rich body of regulatory experience from all regions. While some findings are intuitive, others offer surprises. Table of contents Global ICT Regulatory Outlook 2018 Summary Introduction The state of ICT regulation globally Policy and regulatory trends Policies for digital Digital platform regulation Taxation in the digital ecosystem Collaborative regulation: reaching the next frontier together Regulatory thinking cycle 2.0 Regulatory collaboration: ‘power coupling’ Five vectors defining the future of regulation

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Global ICT Regulatory Outlook 2018 2018

Regulation has entered a new age. The days when regulators dealt with purely technological changes such as the analogue to digital transition are over. Today, digital transformation is sweeping across whole economies, changing our outlook forever. As mobile phones have become even more ubiquitous in their coverage and use, they have also become portals to a host of online services. Regulators find themselves grappling with an ever-growing array of challenges associated across different sectors including digital identity, data protection, blockchain and Artificial Intelligence (AI). Regulation continues to evolve rapidly. Far from falling behind or trying to catch up , I have seen first-hand the earnest efforts of governments and policy-makers to monitor, benchmark and understand the impact of digital transformation. ITU stands ready to support its membership, including regulators and policy- makers, in understanding and navigating these changes and in meeting the challenges they bring. Table of contents Table of contents Foreword 1. Setting the scene 2. Global context 2.1. Economic impact of digital 2.2. Digitization has strong economic impact 2.3. ICT policy and regulatory frameworks impact market growth for digital services 3. The state of ICT regulation 3.1. Worldwide trends 3.2. Major regulatory trends 3.3. Each region is unique 4. Policy and regulatory trends 4.1. The regulator 4.2. Policies for digital 4.3. Regulation as usual – or is it? 4.4. Up for debate 4.5. New frontiers 5. Regulatory collaboration: ‘power coupling’ 5.2. Power coupling: the ICT regulator and the competition authority 5.3. Power coupling: the ICT regulator and the consumer protection authority 5.4. Power coupling: the ICT regulator and the data protection authority 5.5. Power coupling: the ICT regulator and the financial regulator 5.6. Power coupling: the ICT regulator and the energy regulator 5.7. Power coupling: the ICT regulator and the broadcasting authority 5.8. Power coupling: the ICT regulator and the spectrum regulator 5.9. Power coupling: the ICT regulator and the agency responsible for Internet-related issues 5.10. Collaborative regulation worldwide – medal winners and missed opportunities 6. Closing remarks NOTE ON METHODOLOGY – ICT REGULATORY TRACKER ANNEX 1: LIST OF COUNTRIES, ICT REGULATORY TRACKER 2007-2017 ANNEX 2: DETAILED METHODOLOGY OF THE ICT REGULATORY TRACKER

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Global ICT Regulatory Outlook 2017 2017

Over past decades the world has witnessed a digital revolution that is ushering in huge change. The rate of that change continues to accelerate challenging our governments and institutions to keep pace. The ICT regulatory landscape too is evolving and at an ever-increasing pace. This report measures and monitors changes taking place in the telecommunication/ICT market itself as well as in the regulatory environment. It identifies and analyses seven market trends and seven regulatory trends and takes an informed view on future regulatory direction. The report builds on extensive data captured in the ICT Regulatory Tracker. Of the many findings featured in this report, one stands out as particularly significant. It is this: the move towards a more open, collaborative regulatory approach, together with the role played by the ICT regulator in orchestrating this, will be critically important in delivering on the rich promise of the digital economy – to the benefit not only of consumers and businesses but to the 3.9 billion people who remain unconnected to the Internet.

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