The impact of policies, regulation, and institutions on ICT sector performance 2021

This study shows that ICT regulation has had a measurable impact on the growth of global ICT markets over the past decade. The analysis uses econometric modelling to pinpoint the impact of the regulatory and institutional frameworks on the performance of the ICT sector and its contribution to national economies. The modelling has allowed to capture fresh insights backed by authoritative data on the evolution of ICT regulation since 2007, the ICT Regulatory Tracker, and a global dataset on ICT markets economics. The new analysis points to regulatory features that can have a multiplier effect on ICT markets and consumer benefits. For the mobile sector, open and collaborative regulatory policies appear to have a strong positive impact on investment. In turn, more investment triggers coverage gains and lower consumer prices, boosts ICT adoption and generates growth in national economies around two years after policy adoption.

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Collaborative regulation case study Romania 2021

After recovering from the worldwide financial crisis of 2008, Romania demonstrated stable economic growth for almost a decade it experienced the expansion of its economy by an average of 3.9 per cent annually during the period from 2011 to 2019.1 The global pandemic of 2020, however, pushed the country into recession the Romanian economy has contracted by 3.9 per cent. The strength of its recovery will depend on many factors. According to a study by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), countries with better broadband infrastructure and with broad use of ICTs among the population were able to mitigate part of the negative economic impact of COVID-19, allowing households, enterprises, and governments to continue their daily engagements during that time; these countries are also better equipped for the recovery phase.2 In this regard, Romania is in an advantageous position post-COVID-19, having extensive high-quality digital infrastructure including one of the highest penetration rates for ultra-fast broadband in the European Union (EU). Additionally, aspirations for fast recovery are linked to Romania s Recovery and Resilience Plan and significant financial support coming from EU funds.3 These components accessibility and uptake of high-quality infrastructure, and availability of financial resources not only create an opportunity for the country to recover quickly from the pandemic crisis4 and to improve its standing in the EU Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI),5 but, importantly, accelerate the growth of its digital economy. According to estimates, the digital economy in Romania could grow to represent 20 per cent by 2025, becoming a driving force and cross-cutting pillar for socio- economic development.6 However, realizing this potential will require the joint efforts of a range of stakeholders: policy-makers and regulators will need to provide timely incentives and create a favourable eco-system for the adoption of digital technologies in both public and private sectors; the private sector must adopt digital tools to boost its productivity and reach of markets; and individuals will need to continuously upskill to take full advantage of the new digital environment. Table of contents Collaborative Regulation Case Study: Unlocking Romania’s Potential for Digital Transformation and G5 Regulation 1. Introduction 2. Broadband market developments 3. Overview of existing strategies and policies 4. Institutional framework for ICT regulation 5. Collaboration with the private sector 6. G5 regulation and digital transformation: Six key steps to unlock Romania’s potential Conclusions

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The economic contribution of broadband, digitization and ICT regulation: Econometric modelling for the ITU Europe region 2020

This study focuses on the impact of broadband, digital transformation and policy and regulatory frameworks on the growth of markets for digital services in the Europe region. It provides evidence of the importance of regulatory and institutional variables in driving digital growth and further illustrates how broadband technologies combined with effective ICT regulation can positively impact the growth of national economies and prosperity. The outcomes of this regional study may serve as key reference material to illustrate the impact of fixed and mobile broadband on the economy, where the regions stand in terms of digitization and the impact of digitization on GDP. The results from this study could assist European countries in conceptualizing the process of launching evidence-based digital transformation strategies.

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The economic contribution of broadband, digitization, and ICT regulation Econometric modelling for the Arab States region 2020

The transformative power of digital technologies and connectivity is empowering people, creating an environment that nurtures innovation, and is triggering positive change in business processes and in the global economy. The recent ITU global study on the economic contribution of broadband, digitization and ICT regulation provided a global econometric analysis of robust and reliable data resources to measure the impact of fixed and mobile broadband and digital transformation on the economy as a whole. It also analysed the impact of institutional and regulatory variables to the development of the digital ecosystem. Based on the data and analysis to measure the impact of digitization as a whole, a further need was identified to conduct studies that delved deeper into these effects, focusing on specific regions of the world. By applying the same methodologies and econometric models used for assessing global effects, this ITU report focuses on the impact of broadband, digital transformation and policy and regulatory frameworks on the growth of markets for digital services in the Arab States region. Table of contents The economic contribution of broadband, digitization, and ICT regulationEconometric modelling for the Arab States region Acknowledgements Foreword Table of Contents 1 Introduction 2 The effects identified on a global scale 2.1 Economic impact of fixed broadband 2.2 Economic impact of mobile broadband 2.3 Economic impact of digitization 2.4 Impact of policy and regulatory framework on digitization development 3 The economic contribution of broadband and digitization and the impact of policy on digitization in the Arab States region 3.1 Review of the research literature 3.2 Hypotheses 3.3 Economic impact of fixed broadband 3.4 Economic impact of mobile broadband 3.5 Economic impact of digitization 3.6 Impact of policy and regulatory framework on digitization 4 Conclusion Annex A: List of data sources for models testing the economic impact of fixed and mobile broadband Annex B: Indicators included in the CAF Digital Ecosystem Development Index and data sources Bibliography

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