Collaborative regulation case study Moldova 2021

With its ups and downs, the Republic of Moldova has experienced an expansion of the economy by an average of 4.6 per cent annually over the past 20 years.1 The global pandemic, however, has left a significant mark – the gross domestic product (GDP) decreased by 7.0 per cent in 2020 and affected most sectors of the economy. According to a study by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the economic losses of the COVID-19 pandemic during 2020 affected some countries more than others. Countries with better broadband infrastructure and with broad use of ICTs among the population were able to mitigate part of the negative economic impact, allowing households, enterprises, and governments to continue their daily engagements during that time. Although Moldova’s economy is forecasted to rebound in 2021 with an expected 3.8 per cent growth in GDP, traces of the pandemic will remain well into the future. It is important, therefore, to consider the main lessons learnt from the pandemic. One clear lesson has emerged: inclusive connectivity is not an option, it is a necessity. The digital economy has become an enabler for traditional economic sectors in the Republic of Moldova, creating new markets and development opportunities. One less negative legacy of COVID-19 is the opportunity it has highlighted to drive forward with digital transformation.

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The impact of policies, regulation, and institutions on ICT sector performance 2021

This study shows that ICT regulation has had a measurable impact on the growth of global ICT markets over the past decade. The analysis uses econometric modelling to pinpoint the impact of the regulatory and institutional frameworks on the performance of the ICT sector and its contribution to national economies. The modelling has allowed to capture fresh insights backed by authoritative data on the evolution of ICT regulation since 2007, the ICT Regulatory Tracker, and a global dataset on ICT markets economics. The new analysis points to regulatory features that can have a multiplier effect on ICT markets and consumer benefits. For the mobile sector, open and collaborative regulatory policies appear to have a strong positive impact on investment. In turn, more investment triggers coverage gains and lower consumer prices, boosts ICT adoption and generates growth in national economies around two years after policy adoption.

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Collaborative regulation case study Romania 2021

After recovering from the worldwide financial crisis of 2008, Romania demonstrated stable economic growth for almost a decade it experienced the expansion of its economy by an average of 3.9 per cent annually during the period from 2011 to 2019.1 The global pandemic of 2020, however, pushed the country into recession the Romanian economy has contracted by 3.9 per cent. The strength of its recovery will depend on many factors. According to a study by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), countries with better broadband infrastructure and with broad use of ICTs among the population were able to mitigate part of the negative economic impact of COVID-19, allowing households, enterprises, and governments to continue their daily engagements during that time; these countries are also better equipped for the recovery phase.2 In this regard, Romania is in an advantageous position post-COVID-19, having extensive high-quality digital infrastructure including one of the highest penetration rates for ultra-fast broadband in the European Union (EU). Additionally, aspirations for fast recovery are linked to Romania s Recovery and Resilience Plan and significant financial support coming from EU funds.3 These components accessibility and uptake of high-quality infrastructure, and availability of financial resources not only create an opportunity for the country to recover quickly from the pandemic crisis4 and to improve its standing in the EU Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI),5 but, importantly, accelerate the growth of its digital economy. According to estimates, the digital economy in Romania could grow to represent 20 per cent by 2025, becoming a driving force and cross-cutting pillar for socio- economic development.6 However, realizing this potential will require the joint efforts of a range of stakeholders: policy-makers and regulators will need to provide timely incentives and create a favourable eco-system for the adoption of digital technologies in both public and private sectors; the private sector must adopt digital tools to boost its productivity and reach of markets; and individuals will need to continuously upskill to take full advantage of the new digital environment. Table of contents Collaborative Regulation Case Study: Unlocking Romania’s Potential for Digital Transformation and G5 Regulation 1. Introduction 2. Broadband market developments 3. Overview of existing strategies and policies 4. Institutional framework for ICT regulation 5. Collaboration with the private sector 6. G5 regulation and digital transformation: Six key steps to unlock Romania’s potential Conclusions

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Collaborative regulation case study Romania 2021

After recovering from the worldwide financial crisis of 2008, Romania demonstrated stable economic growth for almost a decade it experienced the expansion of its economy by an average of 3.9 per cent annually during the period from 2011 to 2019.1 The global pandemic of 2020, however, pushed the country into recession the Romanian economy has contracted by 3.9 per cent. The strength of its recovery will depend on many factors. According to a study by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), countries with better broadband infrastructure and with broad use of ICTs among the population were able to mitigate part of the negative economic impact of COVID-19, allowing households, enterprises, and governments to continue their daily engagements during that time; these countries are also better equipped for the recovery phase.2 In this regard, Romania is in an advantageous position post-COVID-19, having extensive high-quality digital infrastructure including one of the highest penetration rates for ultra-fast broadband in the European Union (EU). Additionally, aspirations for fast recovery are linked to Romania s Recovery and Resilience Plan and significant financial support coming from EU funds.3 These components accessibility and uptake of high-quality infrastructure, and availability of financial resources not only create an opportunity for the country to recover quickly from the pandemic crisis4 and to improve its standing in the EU Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI),5 but, importantly, accelerate the growth of its digital economy. According to estimates, the digital economy in Romania could grow to represent 20 per cent by 2025, becoming a driving force and cross-cutting pillar for socio- economic development.6 However, realizing this potential will require the joint efforts of a range of stakeholders: policy-makers and regulators will need to provide timely incentives and create a favourable eco-system for the adoption of digital technologies in both public and private sectors; the private sector must adopt digital tools to boost its productivity and reach of markets; and individuals will need to continuously upskill to take full advantage of the new digital environment. Table of contents Collaborative Regulation Case Study: Unlocking Romania’s Potential for Digital Transformation and G5 Regulation 1. Introduction 2. Broadband market developments 3. Overview of existing strategies and policies 4. Institutional framework for ICT regulation 5. Collaboration with the private sector 6. G5 regulation and digital transformation: Six key steps to unlock Romania’s potential Conclusions

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Economic impact of COVID-19 on digital infrastructure Report of an Economic Experts Roundtable organized by ITU 2020

Around the world, COVID-19 has upended lives and economies. Global analysts predict that the world may be facing its deepest recession since the end of World War II. At the same time, the pandemic has highlighted the crucial role of digital connectivity in keeping our societies functioning, as online everything quickly became our new way of life. Despite the surge in digital demand, however, important parts of the digital economy may not have escaped the economic fall-out from the crisis. If the financial difficulties faced by some market players constrain much-needed investment in digital infrastructure, the societal and economic consequences could be long, and far-reaching. Table of contents Economic impact of COVID-19 on digital infrastructure Acknowledgements Foreword List of tables and figures Executive summary Introduction 1. The impact of COVID-19 on digital infrastructure 1.1. Impact on telecommunication networks 1.2. The impact on the digital economy 2. Does digital infrastructure increase social and economic resilience? 2.1. State of research regarding the contribution of digital infrastructure to resilience in the face of pandemics 2.2. Limits to the capacity of digital infrastructure to increase resilience in the face of pandemics 3. Industry implications 3.1. The role of governments 3.2. A need to re-examine capital investment of telecommunication operators 3.3. An acceleration of the digitization of production

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Digital Regulation Handbook 2020

Today’s digital technologies are transforming almost every sector of the economy by presenting new business models, introducing innovative products and services – and, ultimately, changing the way countries around the world harness socioeconomic development. Digital technologies, and the benefits that they bring, can connect citizens to services and opportunities, and help them build a better future. However, for markets to function effectively, they must be accompanied by an enabling policy and regulatory environment. Table of contents Foreword List of tables and figures Introduction Acknowledgements / About the authors Chapter 1. Regulatory governance and independence 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Policy and implementation Evolution of regulation Assessing the need to modernize and streamline 1.3 Role and institutional design of regulator Institutional structure of regulator Traditional areas of responsibilities Shifting mandate/roles of regulators and policy-makers in the digital era Decision-making and rule-making in a multistakeholder environment 1.4 Regulatory collaboration Formalized and informal collaboration occurring across governments 1.5 Building frameworks for digital regulation Licensing frameworks for networks, services, and applications Innovative approaches to sector regulation 1.6 Key findings Development of national digital strategies and roadmaps Institutional structure and role of regulator Building frameworks for digital regulation References_7 Chapter 2. Competition and economics 2.1 Introduction: Regulatory transformation in the digital economy 2.2 Regulation in the digital era Historical approach_7 Recent developments_7 Key findings_7 2.3 The regulation of markets Historical approach_6 Recent developments_6 Key findings_6 2.4 Interconnection of networks Historical approach_5 Recent developments_5 Key findings_5 2.5 Infrastructure sharing Historical approach_4 Recent developments_4 Key findings_4 2.6 Price regulation Historical approach_3 Recent developments_3 Key findings_3 2.7 Dispute resolution Historical approach_2 Recent developments_2 Key findings_2 2.8 Licensing and authorization Historical approach_1 Recent developments_1 Key findings_1 2.9 Mergers and acquisitions Historical approach_0 Recent developments_0 Key findings_0 2.10 Taxation Historical approach Recent developments Key findings References_6 Chapter 3. Access for All 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Challenges to achieving universal access to broadband and digital services 3.3 Policies to promote universal access to broadband and digital services UA funding and financing policies: tackling accessibility challenges Policies to make broadband and digital services affordable Policies to promote inclusion 3.4 Monitoring and evaluation of impact of universal access policies 3.5 Key findings References_5 Chapter 4. Consumer affairs 4.1 Introduction to digital consumer rights Why care about consumers? Consumer rights and responsibilities in the digital world General and special consumer protection law Average consumers and vulnerable consumers The shift to online data 4.2 Consumer support framework Roles in protection and empowerment of digital consumers Consume-provider relationships Roles of ICT regulators Relevant international bodies 4.3 Specific consumer issues Price and quality of service Contracts and prepayment Billing and payment procedures Customer service, complaints, and redress Helping consumers navigate the digital economy Provision for consumers with disabilities Smart consumer devices Trust requires trustworthiness Online safety for children Online safety for adults Digital identity and automated decision-making 4.4 Key findings Introduction to digital consumer rights Consumer support framework Specific consumer issues References_4 Chapter 5. Data protection and trust 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Data protection regimes 5.3 Regulatory authorities 5.4 Technologies and services 5.5 Transfers and trade implications 5.6 Communications privacy 5.7 Data protection and information security References_3 Chapter 6. Spectrum management 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Part 1. Guidance on the regulatory framework for national spectrum management The international context International principles governing spectrum use Principles of national spectrum use Spectrum utilization for broadcasting and for telecommunications purposes in the private commercial and industrial sector Prevention and elimination of interference Rights and obligations of the authorized users Transparency in national spectrum management The linkage between international and national regulations Monitoring the spectrum Best practices for national spectrum management 6.3 Part 2. Key applications and regulatory considerations driving the future use of spectrum Introduction_0 Key trends in spectrum management for emerging technologies Technology innovations driving new spectrum demand Spectrum management and standards for emerging technologies National spectrum licensing New business models and spectrum usage innovations 6.4 Key findings References_2 Chapter 7. Regulatory responses to evolving technologies 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Evolving technologies Cloud computing Internet of Things Big data Blockchain Artificial intelligence Smart capabilities and data protection Data protection as the common denominator 7.3 The evolving Internet value chain 7.4 Evolving business models in the ICT sector 7.5 Summary References_1 Chapter 8. Technical regulation 8.1 Part 1. Quality of service Introduction Selecting parameters Defining measurements Setting targets Making measurements Auditing measurements Publishing measurements Stimulating improvements Reviewing achievements 8.2 Part 2. Numbering, naming, addressing, and identification (NNAI) Why do numbering, naming, and addressing matter? What are NNAI resources? NNAI management Global NNAI resources_0 The digital age emerges Impact of new technologies What instruments can the regulator use? New uses bring new Issues Global NNAI resources Future challenges for NNAI References_0 Chapter 9. Emergency communications 9.1 Introduction Why do emergency telecom/ICTs matter? Which are the different types of hazards? What should the regulator do? What is the disaster management process? 9.2 Mitigation phase 9.3 Preparedness phase 9.4 Response phase 9.5 Recovery phase References

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How broadband, digitization and ICT regulation impact the global economy. Global econometric modelling 2020

As the global economy reels from the shock of COVID-19, decisions taken now that impact economic recovery and growth will be of the utmost importance for the decade ahead. For those of us in the global ICT community and for those in other industries charged with making strategic infrastructure decisions in the years ahead government policy-makers, regulators, influencers, operators and service providers this expert report is especially valuable at this time. Its findings are clear and its recommendations are specific, concrete and practical. The analysis looks at how fixed and mobile broadband as well as digital transformation impact the economy, globally and at regional levels. It also reports on how our institutions and our regulatory approach affect the development of the global digital ecosystem. It is based on the ITU global study on the economic contribution of broadband, digitization and ICT regulation (2018), and related regional econometric modelling studies each of which adds a rich and detailed regional dimension. The data set that lies at the heart of this work is world class global, up-to-date and robust. Table of contents How broadband, digitization and ICT regulation impact the global economy Global econometric modelling Foreword List of tables and figures Executive summary: How broadband and digitization impact the global economy 1 Fixed broadband and its impact on the economy 1.1 Impact of fixed broadband at global and regional levels 1.2 What the modelling showed globally and by region 2. Mobile broadband and its impact on the economy 2.1 Impact of mobile broadband at global and regional levels 2.2 What the modelling showed globally and by region 2.3 Fixed vs. mobile broadband – economic impact by level of development 3 The economic impact of digitization 3.1 An index to measure the development of digital ecosystems: 8 pillars, 64 indicators 3.2 Digitization correlates with economic development 3.3 Digitization – on par with mobile broadband in boosting economies 4 Policy and regulation drive development of digitization Annex A: Review of the related research literature Annex B: Countries analysed for economic impact of fixed and mobile broadband Annex C: Data sources for models testing the economic impact of fixed and mobile broadband Annex D: Indicators included in the Digital Ecosystem Development Index and data sources Annex E: Econometric methodology Acronyms Bibliography

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Economic contribution of broadband, digitization and ICT regulation: Econometric modelling for the ITU Commonwealth of Independent States region 2020

This study focuses on the impact of broadband, digital transformation and policy and regulatory frameworks on the growth of markets for digital services in the CIS region. It provides evidence of the importance of regulatory and institutional variables in driving digital growth and further illustrates how broadband technologies combined with effective ICT regulation can positively impact the growth of national economies and prosperity. The results from this study could assist countries in conceptualizing the process of launching evidence-based digital transformation strategies.

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The economic contribution of broadband, digitization and ICT regulation: Econometric modelling for the ITU Europe region 2020

This study focuses on the impact of broadband, digital transformation and policy and regulatory frameworks on the growth of markets for digital services in the Europe region. It provides evidence of the importance of regulatory and institutional variables in driving digital growth and further illustrates how broadband technologies combined with effective ICT regulation can positively impact the growth of national economies and prosperity. The outcomes of this regional study may serve as key reference material to illustrate the impact of fixed and mobile broadband on the economy, where the regions stand in terms of digitization and the impact of digitization on GDP. The results from this study could assist European countries in conceptualizing the process of launching evidence-based digital transformation strategies.

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Global ICT Regulatory Outlook 2020 2020

The Global ICT Regulatory Outlook 2020 benchmarks regulatory progress across no fewer than 193 countries worldwide. In three years, the report has established itself as the go-to reference for regulators and policy-makers seeking to shape meaningful, regulatory change that will benefit all. There is much to navigate: the landscape is complex and fast moving. As mobile phones host ever more online services, regulators find themselves grappling with an ever-growing array of challenges including digital identity, data protection, blockchain and Artificial Intelligence (AI). There remains, too, the key challenge of achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by the deadline of 2030, now just a decade away. As always, ITU stands ready to support regulators and policy-makers around the world in meeting such challenges. Table of contents Global ICT Regulatory Outlook 2020 Acknowledgements Foreword Introduction Third edition of ITU’s Global ICT Regulatory Outlook Chapter 1: The need for collaboration and metrics – and a new benchmark Collaborative regulation – key to unlocking digital transformation Industry and regulators charting a common future Why do we need collaborative regulation? Generations of regulation: analysis tools and a roadmap for action About the Benchmark of Fifth Generation Collaborative Regulation (G5 Benchmark) The Benchmark of Fifth Generation Collaborative Regulation (G5 Benchmark) – fast-track to collaborative regulation The Benchmark is needed – especially now Looking ‘under the bonnet’ of the Benchmark Benchmark for collaborative regulation – spotlighting the shifts in regulatory frameworks G5 countries – movers, shakers… and some surprises Breaking it down track by track – more surprising insights Opportunity awaits regulators who embrace collaboration Chapter 2: Collaborative regulation: unstoppable, not yet universal Global trends: G4 is now the industry standard but vanguard countries moving onto G5 The view from the regions: Africa The view from the regions: Americas The view from the regions: Arab States The view from the regions: Asia-Pacific The view from the regions: CIS The view from the regions: Europe Chapter 3: Good regulation broadens access and ignites markets G5 and G4 regulation help advance digital services G4 and G5 – powerful engines for mobile broadband growth Fixed broadband – G4 countries losing momentum as G5 countries surge ahead Golden rules that help unlock the power of broadband Seven golden rules that accelerate take-up of fixed broadband Chapter 4: Audit of ITU ICT Regulatory Tracker: conceptually sound, statistically coherent and robust Abstract Introduction Conceptual and statistical coherence Impact of modelling assumptions on the ICT Regulatory Tracker Major shifts in the ICT Regulatory Tracker scores over the period 2007-2018 Analysis of the distribution of regional ICT Regulatory Tracker scores in 2018 Conclusions Annexes to Chapter 4 Annex I. Correlations between indicators Annex II. Nominal ranks with 90% confidence intervals Annex III. Values of the normalised pillars by country in 2018 Appendix 1: Note on methodology, ICT Regulatory Tracker Appendix 2: Note on methodology, G5 Benchmark composition and scoring rationale Appendix 3: List of countries and economies in the ICT Regulatory Tracker Appendix 4: List of countries in the G5 Benchmark 2019

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